STYLES, PERIODS, GROUPS & MOVEMENTS
Introduction
The following list of periods and styles and their dates is intended to help you catalog images. Whenever possible we list the sources that we used for the various sections. Many style names are based on AAT, but since the AAT do not list dates, we have used a variety of sources to gather this information. Since dating is constantly being revised, we assume that many of these dates will change as more is known about the cultures. Dates can be expressed in many ways. For the purposes of cataloging and searching, we have selected the forms below. We suggest using the "ist" form of style names as opposed to "ism;" for example "Impressionist" rather than "Impressionism."

HISTORICAL ERAS (These eras can also be found in a separate Legal List for CSU cataloging. These eras are used to divide the styles, groups, and periods within this document.)

PREHISTORIC Paleolithic & Neolithic generally
ANCIENT Bronze Age to 4th c. in west
MEDIEVAL c. 300 to 1400 in Italy, to 1500 elsewhere
EARLYMODERN 1400/1500 to 1800
MODERN c. 1800-1999
TRADITIONAL Traditional or folk cultures


STYLES, PERIODS, GROUPS & MOVEMENTS INDEX


NON-ART STYLES
PREHISTORIC PERIODS

ANCIENT NEAR EAST & CLASSICAL WORLD: ANCIENT PERIOD

AEGEAN

ANATOLIAN

ARABIAN

EGYPTIAN

ETRUSCAN

GREEK

LEVANTINE

MESOPOTAMIAN

PERSIAN

ROMAN

EUROPEAN STYLES: MEDIEVAL PERIOD

EUROPEAN & AMERICAN STYLES: EARLY MODERN PERIOD

EARLY-/MID 19TH CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES AND MOVEMENTS

LATE 19TH-CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES & MOVEMENTS

EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN: MODERN PERIOD

19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE & DECORATIVE ARTS STYLES AND MOVEMENTS

REVIVAL STYLES Primarily 19th Century

20th CENTURY ARCHITECTURAL AND DECORATIVE STYLES

1st HALF 20th CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES & MOVEMENTS

2ND HALF 20th CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES & MOVEMENTS

ASIAN STYLES

CHINA

KOREA

JAPAN

INDIA

TIBET

CAMBODIA

THAILAND

PRE-COLUMBIAN STYLES

ANDEAN

MESOAMERICAN

CENTRAL AMERICAN & NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBAL STYLES

AFRICAN STYLES

OCEANIC STYLES Traditional Period

TERMS TO USE IN STYLE FIELD FOR NON-ART IMAGES

Since we include many objects that do not have artistic “styles” as
such, we include a list of terms that can be used in the Style field
that will help searchers locate objects of interest.

Commercial

Documentary

Historical

Industrial

Illustration

Literary

Journalistic

Military

Popular Arts

Scientific

Utilitarian

PREHISTORIC PERIODS

Paleolithic 35,000-8,000 BCE
Paleolithic Aurignacian 28,000-22,000 BCE
Paleolithic Solutrean 18,000-15,000 BCE
Paleolithic Magdalenian 15,000-8,000 BCE

Mesolithic 8,000-6,000 BCE Mid East
8,000-3,000 BCE Europe
Neolithic & Chalcolithic 7000-3500 Mid East
3,000-1500 Europe
Bronze Age c. 2500–1000 BCE Mid East started c. 2000 Europe
Iron Age c. 1000 BCE -present


ANCIENT NEAR EAST & CLASSICAL WORLD: ANCIENT PERIOD
AAT & others

ANATOLIAN (Turkey)
Hittite c. 1800-1100 BCE
Sites: Aaca Huyuk, Carcemish, Hattusas [Boghazkoy], Ivriz, Karatepe,
Sakeagozu, Yasilikaya, Zingirli)
Urartian c. 850-590 BCE
Phrygian c. 799-700 BCE
Lydian c. 699-500 BCE

ARABIAN
Nabatean c. 399 BCE-399 CE

MESOPOTAMIAN (Iraq)
Early Dynastic c. 2900-2340 BCE
Protoliterate c. 4000-2900 BCE
Sumerian 3000-2300 BCE
Sites: Bir Nimrud, Eridu, Lagash, Nippur, Tell Asmar, Ur, Uruk [Warka]
Akkadian 2325-c. 2150 BCE
Sumerian (Neo) Sites: Ur 2150-2000 BCE
Babylonian (Old) 1900-1600 BCE
Sites: Aqar Qup, Ashur [Assur], Babylon, Kish, Mari TelHariri , Isin-Larsa
Babylonian (Neo) 625-538 BCE
Kassites 1600-1150 BCE
Mitanni 1600-1150 BCE
Assyrian c. 900-538 BCE
Sites: Khorsabad, Dur Sharrukin

PERSIAN (Iran)
Elamite (Proto) 3200-1800 BCE
Elamite 1800-645 BCE
Sites: Susa, Haft Tepe, Chogha
Achaemenid 538-330 BCE
Sites: Susa, Ctesiphon, Firuzabad, Hatra, Naqsh-i Rustam, Neisar, Palmyra
Pasargada, Persepolis, Rabat, Sialk, Susa, Taq-i Vustan)
Parthian c. 250 BCE-220 CE
Sassanian 226-640
Sites: Ctesiphon
Scythian 1st millennium BCE

LEVANTINE
Phoenician c.1300-200 BCE
Sites: Byblos, Mozia, Pentalica, Sidon, Tyre
North Africa, Mediter colonies
Punic c. 899-100 BCE
Judaic 1020-586 BCE
Canaanite
Selucid 312-64 BCE

EGYPTIAN
Egyptian Predynastic & Archaic (Dyn I-II) 4000-2980 BCE
Egyptian Old Kingdom & 1st Int Per (Dyn III-X) 2665-2050 BCE
Egyptian Middle Kingdom & 2nd Int Per (Dyn XI-XVII) 2050-1550 BCE
Egyptian New Kingdom (Dyn XVIII-XXX)1550-1070 BCE
Amarna style 1378-1362 BCE
Egyptian Late Period 1070-323 BCE
Egyptian Ptolemaic & Roman 323-30 BCE
Coptic 100CE-present

AEGEAN
Aegean Before 700 BCE
Cycladic 3000-2000 BCE
Minoan 2500-1100 BCE
Minoan (Early) 2800-2000 BCE
Minoan ( Middle) 2000-1450 BCE
Minoan (Late) 1450-1100 BCE
Minoan (Sub) 1100-950 BCE
Mycenean (Late Helladic) 1500-1100 BCE

GREEK
Greek Proto-Geometric 1100-900 BCE
Greek Geometric 900-700 BCE
Greek Orientalizing 700-600 BCE
Greek Archaic 600-480 BCE
Greek Severe (Transitional/) 500-480 BCE
Greek Classic 480-323 BCE
Greek Hellenistic 323-30 BCE
Greek Black-Figure c. 700-500 BCE
Greek Red-Figure c. 580-30 BCE
Greek White-Ground c. 480-30 BCE

ETRUSCAN: ANCIENT PERIOD

Etruscan domination 900-510 BCE

ROMAN: ANCIENT PERIOD

Roman Monarchy 753-509 BCE
Roman Republican 509-27 BCE
Roman Empire 27 BCE-410 CE
Roman Late Antique 337 CE-500 CE
Roman Provincial
(Roman Empire divided in 286; Eastern Empire 286-500; Western Empire 286-410)


EUROPEAN STYLES: MEDIEVAL PERIOD

Early Christian 30-400
Byzantine General
Byzantine (Early) c. 400-726
Byzantine (Middle) 726-1100
Byzantine (Late) 1100-present
(Eastern Roman Empire 286-500; Byzantine Empire 500-1453)
Migration 375-600
Celtic 432 BCE-850
Celtic Christian c. 432 BCE-1099 CE
Hiberno-Saxon c. 600-799
Visigothic Spain 412-672
Merovingian 482-750
Ottonian 900-1000
Viking c. 800-1199
Romanesque 1000-1150

Gothic General
Gothic (Early) 1140-1194
Gothic (High) 1194-1300
Gothic (Rayonnant) France c. 1200-1299
Gothic (Decorated) England c. 1300-1399
Gothic (International) c. 1400-1499
Gothic (Late/Flamboyant) c. 1300-1599
Gothic (Perpendicular) England c. 1400-1499
Gothic (Manueline) Portugal 1495-1521

Renaissance (Proto) 14th


EUROPEAN & AMERICAN STYLES: EARLY MODERN PERIOD

15th-16th CENTURIES

Renaissance c. 1400-1500
Renaissance (Proto) c. 1280-1399
Renaissance (High) c. 1495-1527
Renaissance (Late) c. 1525-1580
Renaissance (Northern) c. 1420-1550
Mannerist c. 1515-1610

Baroque c.1600-1700
Baroque (Proto) c. 1550-1600
Baroque (High) c. 1600-1700
Baroque (Classical) France c. 1600-1700
Colonial c.1550-1800
Tudor England 1485-1603
Elizabethan England 1551-1603
Jacobean England 1603-1625
Palladian England c. 1720-1770
Rococo France & Germany c. 1700-1799
Federal United States 1789-c. 1830
Georgian England & United States 1714-1830

Decorative Arts
Louis XIII France 1601-1643
Regency France 1643-1661
Louis XIV France 1661-1715
Louis XV France 1715-1774
Louis XVI France 1774-1793
Directoire France 1794-1795
Queen Anne England c. 1700-1720
Adam Style England c. 1750-1789
Chippendale England c. 1775-1800
Chinese Chippendale England c. 1775-1800
Hepplewhite England c. 1750-1799
Sheraton c. 1775-1799


EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN: MODERN PERIOD

EARLY-/MID 19TH CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES AND MOVEMENTS (ref. AAT)
Academic c.1850-1920
Barbizon School France c. 1825-1875
Hudson River School US c. 1830-1860
Kitsch c.1800-2000
Nazarenes Germany c. 1825-1875
Neoclassical c. 1750-1849
Pictorialist photography c. 1850-1880
Pre-Raphaelite Britain c. 1825-1875
Romantic c. 1775-1850

LATE 19TH-CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES & MOVEMENTS (ref. Encyclopedia Britannica)
Art Nouveau (Italian Stijl Liberty) c. 1890–1920
Beaux Arts c. 1850-1920
Expressionist c. 1885-1999
Impressionist c. 1860-1900
Jugendstil Germany c. 1890-1920
Post-Impressionist France c. 1880-1900
Decadent Movement also fin de siecle. end 19th c
Divisionist, Pointallist, & Neo-Impressionist France c. 1880-1914
Symbolist also Synthetist France c. 1880-1915

19th CENTURY ARCHITECTURE & DECORATIVE ARTS STYLES AND MOVEMENTS: (reference primarily AAT)

Aesthetic Movement Britain c. 1875-1899
Art Nouveau c. 1890–1920
Arts & Crafts Britain c. 1850-1899
Aestheticist Britain c. 1875-1899
Empire France 1804-1814
Beaux Arts France (or 2nd Empire Baroque, Napoleon III) 1852-1870
Biedermeier Austrian & German c. 1800-1850
Charles X France 1824-1830
Edwardian Britain 1901-1910
Functionalist ( also Iron and Glass) c. 1850-1899
Louis XVIII France 1814-1824
Louis Philippe France 1830-1848
Orientalist c. 1825-1875
Regency Britain 1811-1820
Restoration France 1815-1830
Rustic c 1800-1925
Troubadour French c. 1830-1839
Victorian Britain 1837-1901

REVIVAL STYLES Primarily 19th Century
Baroque Revival also Neo-Baroque c 1875-1919
Byzantine Revival c. 1850-1925
Eclectic c. 1900-1940
Egyptian Revival c. 1875-1925
Elizabethan Revival Britain c. 1830-1869
Etruscan Style c. 1775-1800
Georgian Revival Britain c. 1875-1925
Gothic Revival, Britain. (Abbotsford based on Sir Walter Scott’s estate) c. 1820-1839
Greek Revival (Neo-Greek) c. 1750-1840
Islamic Revival c. 1800-1899
Jacobean Revival c. 1800-1925
Mudejar Revival (Spanish Islamic) c. 1800-1899
Neoclassical also Classical Revival c. 1750-1849
Norman Revival c. 1800-1899
Old English Britain c. 1850-1899
Pompeian Revival c. 1725-1775
Regency Revival Britain c. 1790-1830
Renaissance Revival also Neo-Renaissance c. 1800-1899
Rococo Revival c. 1830-1839
Romanesque Revival c. 1820-1899
Scottish Baronial Britain c. 1825-1875
Stuart Revival Britain c. 1800-1849;
Tudor Revival Britain c. 1800-1849; also c. 1900-1925
Victorian Revival Britain c. 1900-1925
Louis Styles France c. 1800-1920


20th CENTURY ARCHITECTURAL AND DECORATIVE STYLES (reference primarily AAT)

Art Deco c. 1920-1939
Bauhaus German 1919-1933
Beaux-Arts c. 1850–1930
Brutalist European after 1945
Deconstructivist c. 1980 to present
Expressionist 1890-1950
Neo-Functionalist after 1945
High-Tech after 1945
International Style c. 1920-1979
Japonism c. 1880-1889
Jugendstil Germany c. 1890–1920
Modernist
Neo-Rationalist after 1945
New Typography Europe c. 1940-1949
Pop c. 1970-1989
Postmodern c. 1980 to present
Purist France c. 1920-1959
Revivalist c. 1975-1999
Sezession Austrian 1897-1915
Scandinavian Modernist c. 1950-1979
Werkstatte Germany & Austria c. 1900-1925
Vienna Workshop also Wiener Werkstatte Austria c. 1900-1930

1st HALF 20th CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES & MOVEMENTS (ref. Encyclopedia Britannica)

Abstract also Non-objective (General term) c. 1900-present
Abstraction-Creation(Geometric Abstraction) France c. 1930-1939
Automatist Europe 1924-c. 1960
Blau Reiter, Der Germany 1911-c. 1915
Concrete art also Geometric Abstraction Europe c. 1930-1979
Constructivist c. 1913-present
Cubist c. 1908-1959
Cubist Analytical c. 1908-1920
Cubist Synthetic c. 1914-1929
Dada 1915-1922
De Stijl also Neo-Plastic Dutch c. 1912-1929
Die Brucke (The Bridge) German c. 1905-1915
The Eight US c. 1905-1925
Expressionist c. 1885-1999
Fauve French c. 1898-1908
Figurative (General term) c.1900-present
Futurist Italian c. 1910-1915
Kinetic c. 1930-present
Magic Realist c. 1930-1949
Merz German c. 1920-1939
Metaphysical Painting Italian c. 1910-1929
Nabis French c. 1890-1920
Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) German c. 1920-1948
Novecento movement (Fascist realist) Italy 1922-1945
Orphist French c. 1910-1930
Photo-journalist c. 1900-1999
Precisionist US c. 1920-1939
Primitivist c. 1900-1999
Purist French c. 1918-1925
Rayonist Russian c. 1909-1914
Realist c. 1800-1999
Socialist Realist c. 1930-1969
Regionalist US c.1930-1950
School of Paris c. 1910-1945
Sezession Austrian 1897-1915
Steiglitz Group US c.1900-1930
Suprematist Russian 1913-1919
Surrealist 1924-1945
Synchronist US c. 1910-1939
Visionary

2ND HALF 20th CENTURY FINE ARTS STYLES & MOVEMENTS
(Ref. Robert Atkin, Art Speak, 1990

Abstract also Non-objective 1900-1999
Abstract Expressionist (Action Painting,&Abstract Imagist) c.1945-1960
Abstract Impressionist c.1950-present
Appropriation c. 1980-1989
Art Informel (French Tachism, Italian Tactilism) Europe c. 1950-1959
art brut France since c. 1960
Arte Povera Europe c. 1965-1979
Assemblage also Found Art since c. 1955
Bay Area Figurative N. Calif. c. 1947 1963
Body art c. 1960-1979
Cobra Northern Europe c. 1950-1959
Color-field US c. 1955-1969
Conceptual c. 1960 to present
Constructivist c. 1913-present
Earth Art also Environmental Art c. 1975-present
Feminist c. 1970-present
Figurative (General term) c.1900-present
Fluxus US & Europe 1960
Funk SF Bay area c. 1965-1979
Futurist Italian c. 1910-1915
Graffiti Art primarily NY c. 1970-1985
Hard Edge c. 1950-1969
Installation c. 1970-present
Kinetic 1930-present
Kitsch c. 1900-present
Light & Space c. 1967-1979
Media Art also Video art since c. 1970
Minimalist also Primary Structures (sculpture) c. 1960-1979
Naïve art also art brut since c. 1965
Narrative Art since c. 1965
Neo-Dada c. 1955-1979
Neo-Expressionist c.1980-present
Nouveau realism French c. 1960-1979
New Realist c. 1960-1979
Op Art c. 1950-1979
Performance c. 1960 to present.
Happenings c. 1960-1979
Photo-journalism c. 1900-1999
Photo-realist also Superrealist c. 1960-1979
Political art since 1970
Pop Art c. 1960-1979
Primitivist c. 1900-1999
Process art c. 1960-1979
Psychedelic c. 1960-1979
Visionary



ASIAN STYLES

CHINA
Prehistoric Period
Yangshao Prehistoric
Longshan

Ancient Period
Shang 1523-1026 BCE
Zhou (Chou) 1028-481 BCE
Warring States 481-221 BCE
Qin (Chin) 221-206 BCE
Han 206 BCE-220 CE

Medieval Period
3 Kingdoms & 6 Dynasties 220-589
Sui 581- 618
Tang 618-909
Five Dynasties 909-960
Liao 916–1125
Song Northern (Sung) 960-1127
Song Southern (Sung) 1127-1279
Jin 1115-1234
Yuan 1279-1368

Early Modern Period
Ming 1368-1644
Qing (Ch'ing) Manchu 1614-1912


KOREA
Prehistoric Period
Neolithic c. 7000 BCE - 10th century BCE
Bronze Age c. 10th century BCE - 3rd century BCE
Iron Age c . 2nd c. BCE-300 CE

Ancient Period
Naknang 108 BCE-313 CE
Three Kingdoms 57 BCE - 668 C
Koguryo North 37 BCE-668
Paekche Southwest 18 BCE-663
Old Silla Southeast 57 BCE-668
Kaya Federation 42-562

Medieval Period
Unified Silla 668-935
Koryo 918-1392

Early Modern Period
Choson . Yi (Li) 1392-1910

Sources:
Lee, Sherman. History of Far Eastern Art, 1982.
Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Encyclopedia of World Art

JAPAN

Prehistoric Period
Jomon 10,500-300 BCE
Jomon (Incipient) 10,500-8000
Jomon (Initial) 8000-5000
Jomon (Early) 5000-2500
Jomon (Middle) 2500-1500
Jomon (Late) 1500-1000
Jomon (Final) 1000-300
Yayoi 300 BCE-300 CE
Kofun 300-710

Ancient Period
Asuka 542-645
Hakuho 645-710
Nara 710-784
Heian 784-1185
Heian (Early) 794-951
Heian (Middle), or Fujiwara 951-1086
Heian (Late), or Insei 1086-1185

Medieval Period
Early Feudal 1185-1573
Kamakura 1185-1333
Kamakura Restoration 1333-1336
Nanbokucho 1336-1392

Early Modern Period
Muromachi or Ashikiaga 1392-1573
Edo or Tokugawa, 1573-1868

Modern (1868 - Present)
Meiji 1868-1912
Taisho 1912-1926
Showa 1926-1989
Heisei 1989-present

Source:
Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, Harry N. Abrams


INDIA (Greater India, including Pakistan and Afghanistan)
Prehistoric Period
Indus Valley Civilization c. 3000-1500 BCE

Ancient Period
Shaishunage Nanda 640-320 BCE
Sunga 850-70 BCE
Maura 322-185 BCE
Andhra 70 BCE-320 CE
Kushan 50-300
Gandhara: Afghanistan 2nd-4th c

Medieval Period
Regional Schools
Gupta North India 320-600
Pallava South India 320-888
Chalukya Central India 535-757
Hindu Dynasties 600-1200
Chola Southern India 850-1267

Early Modern Period
Rajput 16th-19th c
Mughal North India 16th-19th c
NEPAL
Ancient Period
Pre-Licchavi
Licchavi Period 330-880

Medieval Period
Thakuri (Transitional) 880-1200
Malla (Early) 1200-1482
Malla (Later) 1482-1768
Sites: Bhaktapur, Kathmandu, Patan

Early Modern Period
Shah 1769-Present

Sources:
Pal, Art of the Himalayas
Pal, Art of Nepal
Art and Architecture Thesauraus

TIBET
Ancient (First Transmission of Buddhism 7th to 9th c)
Yarlung (Unified by Songtsen Gampo) 627 - 850
Monasteries: Samye
Medieval
(Second Transmission of Buddhism c. 950-1225)
Western Tibet:
Guge Dynasty 978-
Monasteries: Mangnag, Tabo, Alchi
Central Tibet : c. 1000-1299
Kadam Order. Kagyupa related to Milarepa and Marpa
Monasteries: Zinch, Iwang, Nesar, Kyangphu
Central and Western Tibet : c. 1200-1299
Monasteries: Narthang, Shalu, Jonang, Sakyapa, Drigung

Early Modern Period
Central and Western Tibet:
Geluk Order 15th c
Monasteries: Tashi Lhunpo, Ngor (Sakyapa)
Western Tibet: Guge Dynasty c. 1400-1650
Monasteries: Basgo, Piyang, Likir, Lamayuru Karsha, Phutgal, Lithang, Kumbum
Geluk Order 17th c.
Menri style (stylized realism)
(Dalai Lama becomes political leader of Tibet)
Eastern Tibet: 17th c.
Menri style (stylized realism)
Karma Gadri painting style, Chinese influence

Modern Period
China loses control of Tibet (1911)
China reasserts influence (1951-Present)

Sources:
Pal, The Art of Tibet.
Art and Architecture Thesauraus
Rhie, Marylin M. and Robert A. F. Thurman. Wisdom and Compassion: The Sacred Art of Tibet, 1991?.
BURMA
Ancient Period
Early Period 1st to 8th century
Sites: Prome, Thaton, Pegu
Medieval Period
Middle Period 8th century to 1287
Sites: Pagan
Shan-Thai 1287-1760

Mons lived in Irawaddy delta
Pyus lived further up the river
Prome (Sriksetra)
Kyaukse

Sources:
Zimmer, Heinrich. The Art of Asia. Bollinger Series. Princeton University Press. 1968
Encyclopedia of World Art, Volume 2
Art and Architecture Thesauraus


CAMBODIA
Ancient Period
Funan
Chenla 600-802
Koulen 802-87

Medieval Period
Angkor 877-1437

Early Modern
Post-Angkorean 1437-

Sources:
Lee, Sherman. History of Far Eastern Art, 1982.
Art and Architecture Thesauraus
Brand, Michael. The Age of Angkor: Treasures from the National Museum of Cambodia, 1992.

THAILAND
Prehistoric Period
Ban Chieng 2000 BCE-700 BCE

Medieval Period
Dvaravati 6th - 11th century
Khmer Cambodian Dominance 1022-1250
Sukhothai 13th-15th centuries

Early Modern Period
Ayudha 1350-1767
Thon Buri 1767-1782

Modern Period
Bangkok (Ratanakosin) 1782-Present
Khmer

Sources:
Lee, Sherman. History of Far Eastern Art, 1982.
Art and Architecture Thesauraus
Van Beek, Steve and L. I. Tettoni. The Arts of Thailand, 1991.
ISLAMIC
General Islamic 622-present

Medieval Period
Abbasid 735-819 Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq
Aglabids 797-909 North.Africa
Almohad 12th c. North.Africa
Ayyubid Egypt, Iraq, Syria
Bactrian Afghanistan
Berber Morocco
Buyid c. 930-983 Iran
Fatimid 709-1171 Egypt, Tunisia, Turkey
Ghaznavid 999-1040 Afghanistan, Iran
Ghorid Afghanistan
Ilkhanid 1206-1353 Iran, Syria
Mamluk 1250-1517 Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Syria
Mongol 1220-1369 Iran, Iraq
Moorish 1032-1492 Spain
Mudejar Spain :Moslems working for Christians)
Nasrid 1232-1492 Spain
Samanid 819-1055 Iran, Russia
Seljuk c. 1030-1157 Iran, Iraq, Russia, Syria, Turkey
1077-1300 Seljuk of Anatolia
Tulunid 820-905 Egypt
Ummayad 661-735 Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, SaudiArabia, Tunisia 761-1031 Syria & Spain)

Early Modern Period

Mughal c. 1500-1899 India, Pakistan
Ottoman c. 1290-1918 Turkey, Egypt, Morocco, Syria
Qajar 1759-WWII Iran
Safavid 1502-1736 Afghanistan, Iran, Russia
Timurid 1369-1502 Afghanistan, Iran
Zand 1750-1759 Iran
Qajar 1759-WWII Iran


PRE-COLUMBIAN STYLES

PRE-COLUMBIAN STYLES: ANDEAN

PREHISTORIC
Lithic Before 4000 BCE
Sites: Guitarrero (Peru North Highlands)
Pre-ceramic c. 4000 BCE-2000 BCE
Sites: :Huaca Prieta Guitarrero (Peru North Coast)
La Florida, El Paraiso, (Peru Central Coast)
Chinchoros (Bolivia. Tititcaca Region)
Initial Period 2000 BCE-700 BCE

ANCIENT PERIOD
Early Horizon c. 800 BCE- 0
Early Intermediate c. 0- 600
Groups:
Cupisnique Early Horizon (Peru North Coast) c. 700 BCE-0
Chavin Early Horizon (Peru North Highlands) c.1200 BCE-200 BCE
Gallinazo Early Intermediate (Peru North Coast) c. 200 BCE-200 CE
Huarpa Early Intermediate (Peru Central Highlands) c. 1-400
Nasca Early Intermediate (Peru South Coast) c. 100-700
Pukara Early Horizon (Bolivia Titicaca Altiplano) c. 200 BCE-200 CE
Paracas Early Horizon (Peru South Coast) c. 600 BCE-0
Recuay Early Intermediate (Peru North Highlands) c. c. 0-500
Salinar Early Intermediate (Peru North Coast) c. 200 BCE-200
*Tiwanaku Early Intermediate/Middle Horizon (Bolivia. Titicaca Region) c. 0-1000
Sites: Peru North Highlands: Galgada, Kotosh Early Horizon

MEDIEVAL PERIOD
Middle Horizon c. 600-1000
Late Intermediate c. 1000-1400
Late Horizon c. 1450-1516
Groups:
Chimu Late Intermediate (Peru North Coast) c. 1000-1450
Chancay Late Intermediate (Peru Central Coast) c. 1000-1450
Inca Late Intermediate (Peru South Coast) c. 750-1438
Inca Late Horizon (Peru & Titicaca Region) 1438-1534
Moche Middle Horizon (Peru North Coast) 200-1000
Sican Middle Horizon (Peru North Coast) c. 750-1250
Wari Middle Horizon (Peru Central & South Highlands, Central Coast) c. 450-750

EARLY MODERN Colonial 1519-1799Colonial

*NOTE: IF DATES EXTEND OVER TWO PERIODS USE / TO CONNECT THEM. EXAMPLE:
Tiwanaku: Early Intermediate/Middle Horizon 0-1000
IF DATED OBJECT FALL WITHIN ONE OF THE PERIODS USE DATE FOR THAT PERIOD:
Tiwanaku: Early Intermediate c. 550

Source: Rebecca Stone Miller, Art of the Andes from Chavin to Inca. 1995. Thames and Hudson.

PRECOLUMBIAN STYLES: MESOAMERICAN

ANCIENT PERIOD
Preclassic c. 1500 BCE-300 CD
Early Formative c. 1500 BCE-800 BCE
Middle Formative c. 800 BCE-300 BCE
Late Formative c. 300 BCE-300 CE

Groups:
Central Mexico Sites: Tlatilco, Middle Formative c. 600-500 BCE;
Cuicuilco Late Formative c 500- 300 BCE
Colima Late Formative West Mexico c. 300 BCE-0 BCE
Jalisco Late Formative/Early Classic West Mexico c. 200 BCE-300 CE
Maya Pre-Classic Mesoamerica c. 1500 BCE-100 CE
Sites: Lowland Maya. Cerros Late Formative 0-200
Mexico Highlands Pacific Coast sites Ocos Early Formative c. 1500 BCE-800 BCE
Monte Alban I: Middle Formative Oaxaca Mexico c. 600 BCE-200 BCE
Monte Alban II Late Formative Oaxaca Mexico c. 200 BCE-200 BC
Nayarit Late Formative/Early Classic West Mexico c. 200 BCE-500
Olmec Early & Middle Formative Mexico Gulf Coast c.1500 BCE-300 CE
(Sites: San Lorenzo, La Venta, Tres Zapatos)
Teotihucan Phases I-IV: Early Classic Central Mexico 0-c. 600
West Mexico sites: Capacha, Xochipala Early Formative c. 1500 BCE-800 BCE

MEDIEVAL Period
Classic c. 300-900
Early Classic c. 300-600
Late Classic c. 600-900
Postclassic c. 900-1520
Early Postclassic c. .900-1200
Late Postclassic c. 1200-1520
Groups:
Central Mexico Sites: Cacaxtla (c. 600-900) Xochicalococ. (900-1100)
Aztec: Late Postclassic Valley of Mexico.1325-1519
Sites: Tlzxcal, Tenochtitlan
Huastec Postclassic Mexico Gulf Coast c.900-1519
Maya Mesoamerica c. 250-1519
Maya Early Classic c. 200-600
Highland Maya Sites : Escuintla; Kaminaljuyu
Lowland Maya sites: Tzakol, Dzibilchaltun
Maya Late Classic c. 600-900
Lowland Maya sites: Tepeu, Puuc and Central Uicatam
Maya Early Postclassic c. 900-1200
Lowland Maya sites: Chichen Itza (Toltec-Maya ) Yucatan c. 900-1200
Maya Late Postclassic c. c. 1200-1519
Highland Maya Sites Mixco Vieojo, Iximche, Utaalan (independent states):
Lowland Maya sites: Tulum, Samta Rota. Mayapan, Tayasal (Itza)
Mixtec Late Postclassic Mexico Oaxaca c. 1200-1519
Monte Alban IIIa&b: Early Classic Mexico Oaxaca c. 200-900
Tarascans Early Postclassic West Mexico c. 1200-1519
Toltec Early Postclassic Sites: Tula Central Mexico c. 900-1200
Totonac Late Classic Mexico Gulf Coast c. 300-900
Veracruz Classic: Mexico Gulf Coast c. 300-1000
Sites Cerro de las Mesas, Remohades, El Tajin
Zapote Early Postclassic Mexico Oaxaca 700 BCE-1300

Source: Mary Ellen Miller. The Art of Mesoamerica from Olmecs to Aztecs. 1994 Thames and Hudson.

CENTRAL AMERICAN & NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICA

ANCIENT PERIOD
Initial Style Panama 2nd-7th c
Malagana Columbia 3rd c BCE-3rd c CE c
Tolita Ecuador, Columbia 1st-4th c
Tolima Columbia 1st-7th c
Llama Columbia 4th c BCE-2nd c BCE
Yotoco Columbia 1st-7th

MEDIEVAL Period
Capuli Columbia 4th-10th c
Chiriqui Panama, Costa Rica 11th-16th c
International Style Panama 5th-7th c
Macaracas Panama 8th-12th c
Muisca Columbia 10th-16th c
Parita Panama 12th-16th c
Sonso Columbia 13th-16th c.
Sinu Columbia 5th-10th c
Quimbaya Columbia 1st-7th c
Tairona Columbia 10th-16th c
Venado Beach Panama 5th-8th c
Veraguas Panama 11th-16th c

Source: Julie Jones and Heidi King. The Gold of the Americas. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2002.


NATIVE AMERICAN STYLES: Traditional Period

NORTHWEST
Native American Northwestern
Chinook
Haida
Inuit or Eskimo
Kwakiutl
Nootka
Salish
Tlingit

WEST
Native American Western
Nez Perce
Pomo

SOUTHWEST
Native American Southwestern
Apache
Acoma
Anasazi
Hopi
Mogollon Mimbres
Navajo
Pima
Pueblo 1000-1300
Ute
Zuni

PLAINS
Unknown Plains Group
Arapaho
Blackfoot
Cheyenne
Kiowa
Sioux

NORTHEAST
Unknown Northeast Group
Iroquois
Mohegan
Oneida
Ottowa
Seneca
Woodlands
Delaware
Winnebago

SOUTHEAST & MOUND BUILDERS
Native American Southeastern
Creek
Mississipian
Seminole
Temple Mound 900-1700
Tennessee

AFRICAN STYLES (Source AAT)

PREHISTORIC PERIOD:
Oldowen
Chelles-Acheul
First Intermdiate Stone Age
Fauresmith
Sangoan
Middle Stone Age
Stillbay
Pietersburg
Lupemban
Second Intermiediate Stone age
Mangosian
Lupembo-Tshitolian
Later-Stone age
Smithfield
Wilton
Nachiikufan
Tshitolian

Prehistoric African rock art periods
Bubalus phase
Round Head phase
Bovidean Pastoral phase
Horse phase
Chariot sub-period
Horseman sub-period
Horse and Camel Sub-period

WEST AFRICAN STYLES

Medieval Period
Benin 1300-present
Benin Early
Benin Middle
Benin Late
Daima
Dawu
Eshure
Ghana Kingdom
Gonja
Ife and Yoruba beginning 800-1400
Kanem-Bornu
Kintampo
Kong
Koumbi Saleh
Mali Empire (Ancient Inland Niger Delta styles) 1300-1500
Jenne
Mopti
Niani
Nigerian
Sankore
Tellem
Timbuktu
Yoruba

OCEANIC STYLES Traditional Period (source AAT)

MICRONESIAN
Aua
Caroline Island
Palau
Truk
Yap
Kiribati
Marianas Island
Marshall Island
Tuvalu
Wuvulu Island

POLYNESIAN
Austral Island
Cook Island
Mangaian
Easter Island
Gambier Island
Mangarevan
Hawaiian
Marquesan
New Zealand
Maori
Classic Maori
Samoan
Society Island
Tahitian
Tongan


TERMS FOR CERAMICS
(Robert Milnes, Robert Charleston ed. , World Cermics, Hamyln, 1989,
& Phoebe Phillips ed., Collectors Encyclopedia of Antiques, Crowne 1973.)

ANCIENT CERAMIC STYLES
Painted pottery. Many early cultures.
Samarraware. Neolithic Mesopotamia
Scarletware. Early Dynastic Egyptian

Black-figure. Ancient Greek 7th-6th c. BCE. Figures drawn in black slip on red or buff body. Incised details, with some purple red and white added.
Red-figure. Ancient Greek. 5th-1st c. BCE. Black slip covers the body leaving figures the color of the body which goes from buff to red brown, with details added using a brush.
White-ground. Ancient Greek. 5th-1st. Body covered with white slip, decorations painted.
Red-gloss technique Hellenistic & Roman ware 3rd- 1st c BCE. Dipped in red slip, fired in oxidizing furnace. Often with molded relief décor.
Black-gloss. Roman. 1st c BCE.

MEDIEVAL STYLES
Iznik ware: Ottoman Turkey c. 1490-1700
Mina’I ware (Major centers Rayy and Kashan) Seljuk Persia. c.1050-1300
Sare ware Persia c. 900-999
Hispano-Moresque. Spain c. 1300-1599

18th-20th CENTURY CERAMIC STYLES
armorial porcelain
Minton British
Parian ware British
Saint Clement pottery French
Sarreguemines pottery French
Bunzlau pottery German
Kelsterbach porcelain German
Thuringian ware German
Wedgwood (18th-19th c) English
Jasper-ware (classical cameo type)

CERAMIC MATERIALS:
Terracotta: dark red clay used mostly for sculpture
Earthenware: used for most early pottery, clay is mostly fairly dark.
Stoneware: Higher fired work, various colored bodies.
Faience: white opaque tin glaze over earthenware (mostly French & German 16th-18th c)
Maiolica : white opaque tin glaze over earthenware, mostly Spain & Italy
Delft: same as above, but mostly in blue and white. Holland
Porcelain: white clay, high fire, translucent body.. Asia 14th to present. Europe 18th c. to present
Porcelain: soft-paste(16th-18th c)
Porcelain: hard-paste (China, to Europe in 18th-19th c higher fired)
Porcelainous stoneware. Asia
bone-china; Europe
Celadon: Asia most popular 14th-17th

CERAMIC TECHNIQUES:
burnished
ash-glazed
creamware. lead-glazed earthenware. England c. 1750
enamel colors: glass colors which fuse with the glaze
famille jaune: Chinese porcelaine décor emphasizing yellow enamels. Low fire
famille rose: Chinese porcelaine décor emphasizing pink & red enamels. Low fire.
famille vert: Chinese porcelaine décor emphasizing green enamels. Low fire
hand-painted
impasto: thick application of color
lead-glazed
lustreware or lustre: glaze with metallic sheen
over-glaze painted
raku : Japan, open firing in reduction kilm
salt-glazed (Europe used on stoneware)
sgraffiato (incised)
slip decorated: use of watered-down clay
slip-casting: watered-down clay poured into mold
tin-enamelled
tin-glazed (Europe, used on earthenware)
transfer –printed (19th-20th c)
underglaze blue: often used on once fired porcelain before final glazing.

--Compilation ©Kathleen Cohen March 2002